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Thread: 20 Accounting Standard 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

  1. #31
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Control number of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Control number of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    A3 To illustrate the application of the control number notion described in paragraphs 42 and 43, assume that an entity has profit from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity of Rs. 4,800, a loss from discontinued operations attributable to the parent entity of (Rs. 7,200), a loss attributable to the parent entity of (Rs. 2,400), and 2,000 ordinary shares and 400 potential ordinary shares outstanding. The entity’s basic earnings per share is Rs. 2.40 for continuing operations, (Rs. 3.60) for discontinued operations and (Rs. 1.20) for the loss. The 400 potential ordinary shares are included in the diluted earnings per share calculation because the resulting Rs. 2.00 earnings per share for continuing operations is dilutive, assuming no profit or loss impact of those 400 potential ordinary shares. Because profit from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity is the control number, the entity also includes those 400 potential ordinary shares in the calculation of the other earnings per share amounts, even though the resulting earnings
    per share amounts are antidilutive to their comparable basic earnings per share amounts, ie the loss per share is less [(Rs. 3.00) per share for the loss from discontinued operations and (Rs.1.00) per share for the loss].

  2. #32
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Average market price of ordinary shares of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Average market price of ordinary shares of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    A4 For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the average market price of ordinary shares assumed to be issued is calculated on the basis of the average market price of the ordinary shares during the period. Theoretically, every market transaction for an entity’s ordinary shares could be included in the determination of the average market price. As a practical matter, however, a simple average of weekly or monthly prices is usually adequate.


    A5 Generally, closing market prices are adequate for calculating the average market price. When prices fluctuate widely, however, an average of the high and low prices usually produces a more representative price. The method used to calculate the average market price is used consistently unless it is no longer representative because of changed conditions. For example, an entity that uses closing market prices to calculate the average market price for several years of relatively stable prices might change to an average of high and low prices if prices start fluctuating greatly and the closing market prices no longer produce a representative average price.

  3. #33
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Options, warrants and their equivalents of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earning Per Share - AS 20

    Options, warrants and their equivalents

    A6 Options or warrants to purchase convertible instruments are assumed to be exercised to purchase the convertible instrument whenever the average prices of both the convertible instrument and the ordinary shares obtainable upon conversion are above the exercise price of the options or warrants. However, exercise is not assumed unless conversion of similar outstanding convertible instruments, if any, is also assumed.

    A7 Options or warrants may permit or require the tendering of debt or other instruments of the entity (or its parent or a subsidiary) in payment of all or a portion of the exercise price. In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants have a dilutive effect if (a) the average market price of the related ordinary shares for the period exceeds the exercise price or (b) the selling price of the instrument to be tendered is below that at which the instrument may be tendered under the option or warrant agreement and the resulting discount establishes an effective exercise price below the market price of the rdinary shares obtainable upon exercise. In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants are assumed to be exercised and the debt or other instruments are assumed to be tendered. If tendering cash is more advantageous to the option or warrant holder and the contract permits tendering cash, tendering of cash is assumed. Interest (net of tax) on any debt assumed to be tendered is added back as an adjustment
    to the numerator.

    A8 Similar treatment is given to preference shares that have similar provisions or to other instruments that have conversion options that permit the investor to pay cash for a more favourable conversion rate.

    A9 The underlying terms of certain options or warrants may require the proceeds received from the exercise of those instruments to be applied to redeem debt or other instruments of the entity (or its parent or a subsidiary). In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants are assumed to be exercised and the proceeds applied to purchase the debt at its average market price rather than to purchase ordinary shares. However, the excess proceeds received from the assumed exercise over the amount used for the assumed purchase of debt are considered (ie assumed to be used to buy back ordinary shares) in the diluted earnings per share calculation. Interest (net of tax) on any debt assumed to be purchased is added back as an adjustment to the numerator.

  4. #34
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Written put options of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Written put options of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    A10 To illustrate the application of paragraph 63, assume that an entity has outstanding 120 written put options on its ordinary shares with an exercise price of Rs. 35. The average market price of its ordinary shares for the period is Rs. 28. In calculating diluted earnings per share, the entity assumes that it issued 150 shares at Rs. 28 per share at the beginning of the period to satisfy its put obligation of Rs. 4,200. The difference between the 150 ordinary shares issued and the 120 ordinary shares received from satisfying the put option (30 incremental ordinary shares) is added to the denominator in calculating diluted earnings per share.

  5. #35
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    A11 Potential ordinary shares of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate convertible into either ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate, or ordinary shares of the parent, venturer or investor (the reporting entity) are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share as follows:


    (a) instruments issued by a subsidiary, joint venture or associate that enable their holders to obtain ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate are included in calculating the diluted earnings per share data of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate. Those earnings per share are then included in the reporting entity’s earnings per share calculations based on the reporting entity’s holding of the instruments of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate.


    (b) instruments of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate that are convertible into the reporting entity’s ordinary shares are considered among the potential ordinary shares of the reporting entity for the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share. Likewise, options or warrants issued by a subsidiary, joint venture or associate to purchase ordinary shares of the reporting entity are considered among the potential ordinary shares of the reporting entity in the calculation of consolidated diluted earnings per share.

    A12 For the purpose of determining the earnings per share effect of instruments issued by a reporting entity that are convertible into ordinary shares of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate, the instruments are assumed to be converted and the numerator (profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity) adjusted as necessary in accordance with paragraph 33.
    In addition to those adjustments, the numerator is adjusted for any change in the profit or
    loss recorded by the reporting entity (such as dividend income or equity method income) that is attributable to the increase in the number of ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate outstanding as a result of the assumed conversion. The denominator of the diluted earnings per share calculation is not affected because the number of ordinary shares of the reporting entity outstanding would not change upon assumed

  6. #36
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Participating equity instruments and two-class ordinary shares of Accounting Standards (AS) 20 - AS 20

    Participating equity instruments and two-class ordinary shares


    A13 The equity of some entities includes:

    (a) instruments that participate in dividends with ordinary shares according to a predetermined formula (for example, two for one) with, at times, an upper limit on the extent of participation (for example, up to, but not beyond, a specified amount per share).


    (b) a class of ordinary shares with a different dividend rate from that of another class of ordinary shares but without prior or senior rights.

    A14 For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, conversion is assumed for those instruments described in paragraph A13 that are convertible into ordinary shares if the effect is dilutive. For those instruments that are not convertible into a class of ordinary shares, profit or loss for the period is allocated to the different classes of shares and participating equity instruments in accordance with their dividend rights or other rights to participate in undistributed earnings. To calculate basic and diluted earnings per share:

    (a) profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity is adjusted (a profit reduced and a loss increased) by the amount of dividends declared in the period for each class of shares and by the contractual amount of dividends (or interest on participating bonds) that must be paid for the period (for example, unpaid cumulative dividends).

    (b) the remaining profit or loss is allocated to ordinary shares and participating equity instruments to the extent that each instrument shares in earnings as if all of the profit or loss for the period had been distributed. The total profit or loss allocated to each class of equity instrument is determined by adding together the amount allocated for dividends and the amount allocated for a participation feature.

    (c) the total amount of profit or loss allocated to each class of equity instrument is divided by the number of outstanding instruments to which the earnings are allocated to determine the earnings per share for the instrument. For the calculation of diluted earnings per share, all potential ordinary shares assumed to have been issued are included in outstanding ordinary shares.

  7. #37
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Partly paid shares of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Partly paid shares of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    A15 Where ordinary shares are issued but not fully paid, they are treated in the calculation of basic earnings per share as a fraction of an ordinary share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends during the period relative to a fully paid ordinary share.


    A16 To the extent that partly paid shares are not entitled to participate in dividends during the period they are treated as the equivalent of warrants or options in the calculation of diluted earnings per share. The unpaid balance is assumed to represent proceeds used to purchase ordinary shares. The number of shares included in diluted earnings per share is the difference between the number of shares subscribed and the number of shares assumed to be purchased.

  8. #38
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Appendix B of Accounting Standards (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Appendix B of Accounting Standards (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Click here for Appendix B and Illustrations


    http://www.knowledgebible.com/forum/...ings-Per-Share

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