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Thread: 20 Accounting Standard 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

  1. #1
    Accounting Standards
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    Default 20 Accounting Standard 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Accounting Standard (AS) 20
    (issued 2001)
    Earnings Per Share

    (This Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in
    bold italic type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main principles. This Accounting Standard should
    be read in the context of its objective and the Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards
    .)

    Accounting Standard (AS) 20,
    ‘Earnings Per Share’, issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, comes into effect in respect of accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2001 and is mandatory in nature2 from that date, in respect of enterprises whose equity shares or potential equity shares are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India. An enterprise which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are so listed butwhich discloses earnings per share, should calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with this Standard from the aforesaid date3 . However, in respect of accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2004, if any such enterprise does not fall in any of the following categories, it need not disclose diluted earnings per share (both including and excluding extraordinary items) and information required by paragraph 48 (ii) of this Standard4 :

    (i) Enterprises whose equity securities or potential equity securities are listed outside India and enterpriseswhose debt securities (other than potential equity securities) are listed whether in India or
    outside India.

    (ii) Enterprises which are in the process of listing their equity or debt securities as evidenced by the board of directors
    resolution in this regard.


    (iii) Banks including co-operative banks.

    (iv) Financial institutions.

    (v) Enterprises carrying on insurance business.

    (vi) All commercial, industrial and business reporting enterprises, whose turnover for the immediately preceding accounting period on the basis of audited financial statements exceeds Rs. 50 crore.
    Turnover does not include
    ‘other income’.

    (vii) All commercial, industrial and business reporting enterprises having borrowings, including public deposits, in excess ofRs. 10 crore at any time during the accounting period.

    (viii) Holding and subsidiary enterprises of any one of the above at any time during the accounting period.

    Where an enterprise (which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India but which discloses earnings per share) has been covered in any one or
    more of the above categories and subsequently, ceases to be so covered, the enterprise will not qualify for exemption from the disclosure of diluted earnings per share (both including and excluding extraordinary
    items) and paragraph 48 (ii) of this Standard, until the enterprise ceases to be covered in any of
    the above categories for two consecutive years.
    Where an enterprise (which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India but which discloses earnings per share) has previously qualified for exemption from the disclosure of diluted earnings per share (both including and excluding extraordinary items) and paragraph 48(ii) of this Standard (being not covered by any of the above categories) but no longer qualifies for exemption in the current accounting period, this Standard becomes applicable, in its entirety, from the current period. However, the relevant corresponding previous period figures need not be disclosed.

    If an enterprise (which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India but which discloses earnings per share), pursuant to the above provisions, does not disclose the diluted earnings per share (both including and excluding extraordinary items) and information required by paragraph 48 (ii), it should disclose the fact.


    The following is the text of the Accounting Standard.


  2. #2
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Objective of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Objective of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    The objective of this Statement is to prescribe principles for the determination and presentation of earnings per share which will improve comparison of performance among different enterprises for the same period and among different accounting periods for the same enterprise. The focus of this
    Statement is on the denominator of the earnings per share calculation. Even though earnings per share data has limitations because of different accounting policies used for determining ‘earnings’, a consistently determined denominator enhances the quality of financial reporting.

  3. #3
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Scope of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 Earning Per Share - AS 20 EPS

    Scope of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 Earning Per Share - AS 20 EPS


    1. This Statement should be applied by enterprises whose equity shares or potential equity shares are listed on a recognised stock exchangein India. An enterprise which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are so listed but which discloses earnings per share should calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with this Statement.

    2. In consolidated financial statements, the information required by this Statement should be presented on the basis of consolidated information.

    3. This Statement applies to enterprises whose equity or potential equity shares are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India. An enterprise which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are so listed is not required to disclose earnings per share. However, comparability in financial reporting among enterprises is enhanced if such an enterprise that is required to disclose by any statute or chooses to disclose earnings per share calculates earnings per share in accordance with the principles laid down in this Statement. In the case of a parent (holding enterprise), users of financial statements are usually concerned with, and need to be informed
    about, the results of operations of both the enterprise itself as well as of the group as awhole.Accordingly, in the case of such enterprises, this Statement requires the presentation of earnings per share information on the basis of consolidated financial statements as well as individual financial statements of the parent. In consolidated financial statements, such information is
    presented on the basis of consolidated information.

  4. #4
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default meanings of Equity Shares, Preference Shares, Financial Instrument of AS 20

    meanings of Equity Shares, Preference Shares, Financial Instrument of AS 20

    4. For the purpose of this Statement, the following terms are used with the meanings specified:

    An equity share is a share other than a preference share.


    A preference share is a share carrying preferential rights to dividends and repayment of capital.


    A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one enterprise and a financial liability or equity shares of another enterprise.


    A potential equity share is a financial instrument or other contract that entitles, or may entitle, its holder to equity shares.

  5. #5
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Share warrants or options are financial instruments that give the holder the right to acquire equity shares AS 20

    Share warrants or options are financial instruments that give the holder the right to acquire equity shares.

    Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.


    5. Equity shares participate in the net profit for the period only after preference shares. An enterprise may have more than one class of equity shares. Equity shares of the same class have the same rights to receive dividends.


    6. A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one enterprise and a financial liability or equity shares of another enterprise. For this purpose, a financial asset is any asset that is

    (a) cash;

    (b) a contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from another enterprise;

    (c) a contractual right to exchange financial instruments with another enterprise under conditions that are potentially favourable; or

    (d) an equity share of another enterprise.

    A financial liability is any liability that is a contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset to another enterprise or to exchange financial instruments with another enterprise under conditions that are potentially unfavourable.


    7. Examples of potential equity shares are:

    (a) debt instruments or preference shares, that are convertible into equity shares;

    (b) share warrants;

    (c) options including employee stock option plans under which employees of an enterprise are entitled to receive equity shares as part of their remuneration and other similar plans; and

    (d) shares which would be issued upon the satisfaction of certain conditions resulting fromcontractual arrangements (contingently issuable shares), such as the acquisition of a business or other assets, or shares issuable under a loan contract upon default of payment of principal or interest, if the contract so provides.

  6. #6
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Presentation of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Presentation of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    8. An enterprise should present basic and diluted earnings per share on the face of the statement of profit and loss for each class of equity shares that has a different right to share in the net profit for the period. An enterprise should present basic and diluted earnings per share with equal prominence for all periods presented.

    9. This Statement requires an enterprise to present basic and diluted earnings per share, even if the amounts disclosed are negative (a loss per share).

  7. #7
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Measurement Basic Earnings Per Share of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Measurement Basic Earnings Per Share of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    10. Basic earnings per share should be calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

    Earnings - Basic


    11. For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders should be the net profit or loss for the period after deducting preference dividends and any attributable tax thereto for the period.


    12. All items of income and expense which are recognised in a period, including tax expense and extraordinary items, are included in the determination of the net profit or loss for the period unless an Accounting Standard requires or permits otherwise (see Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies). The amount of preference dividends and any attributable tax thereto for the period is deducted from the net profit for the period (or added to the net loss for the period) in order to calculate the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders.

    13. The amount of preference dividends for the period that is deducted from the net profit for the period is:

    (a) the amount of any preference dividends on non-cumulative preference shares provided for in respect of the period; and


    (b) the full amount of the required preference dividends for cumulative preference shares for the period, whether or not the dividends have been provided for. The amount of preference dividends for
    the period does not include the amount of any preference dividends for cumulative preference shares paid or declared during the current period in respect of previous periods.


    14. If an enterprise has more than one class of equity shares, net profit or loss for the period is apportioned over the different classes of shares in accordance with their dividend rights.

    Per Share - Basic

    15. For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the number of equity shares should be
    the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.


    16. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period reflects the fact that the amount of shareholders’ capital may have varied during the period as a result of a larger or lesser number of shares outstanding at any time. It is the number of equity shares outstanding at the beginning of the period, adjusted by the number of equity shares bought back or issued during the period multiplied by the time-weighting factor. The time-weighting factor is the number of days forwhich the specific shares are outstanding as a proportion of the total number of days in the period; a reasonable approximation of the weighted average is adequate in many circumstances.


    Appendix I illustrates the computation ofweighted average number of shares.


    17. In most cases, shares are included in the weighted average number of shares from the date the consideration is receivable, for example:

    (a) equity shares issued in exchange for cash are included when cash is receivable;

    (b) equity shares issued as a result of the conversion of a debt instrument to equity shares are included as of the date of conversion;

    (c) equity shares issued in lieu of interest or principal on other financial instruments are included as of the date interest ceases to accrue;

    (d) equity shares issued in exchange for the settlement of a liability of the enterprise are included as of the date the settlement becomes effective;

    (e) equity shares issued as consideration for the acquisition of an asset other than cash are included as of the date on which the acquisition is recognised; and


    (f) equity shares issued for the rendering of services to the enterprise are included as the services are rendered.


    In these and other cases, the timing of the inclusion of equity shares is determined by the specific terms and conditions attaching to their issue.Due consideration should be given to the substance of any contract associated with the issue.


    18. Equity shares issued as part of the consideration in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase are included in the weighted average number of shares as of the date of the acquisition because the transferee incorporates the results of the operations of the transferor into its statement of profit and
    loss as fromthe date of acquisition. Equity shares issued during the reporting period as part of the consideration in an amalgamation in the nature ofmerger are included in the calculation of the weighted average number of shares from the beginning of the reporting period because the financial statements of the combined enterprise for the reporting period are prepared as if the combined entity had existed from the beginning of the reporting period. Therefore, the number of equity shares used for the calculation of basic earnings per share in an amalgamation in the nature ofmerger is the aggregate of the weighted average number of shares of the combined enterprises, adjusted to equivalent shares of the enterprise whose shares are outstanding after the amalgamation.


    19. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that theywere entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period.

    Appendix II illustrates the computations in respect of partly paid equity shares.

    20. Where an enterprise has equity shares of different nominal values but with the same dividend rights, the number of equity shares is calculated by converting all such equity shares into equivalent number of shares of the same nominal value.

    21. Equity shares which are issuable upon the satisfaction of certain conditions resulting from contractual arrangements (contingently issuable shares) are considered outstanding, and included in the computation of basic earnings per share from the date when all necessary conditions under the
    contract have been satisfied.


    22. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented should be adjusted for events, other than the conversion of potential equity shares, that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.


    23. Equity shares may be issued, or the number of shares outstanding may be reduced, without a corresponding change in resources. Examples include:

    (a) a bonus issue;

    (b) a bonus element in any other issue, for example a bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders;

    (c) a share split; and

    (d) a reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

    24. In case of a bonus issue or a share split, equity shares are issued to existing shareholders for no additional consideration. Therefore, the number of equity shares outstanding is increased without an increase in resources. The number of equity shares outstanding before the event is adjusted for the
    proportionate change in the number of equity shares outstanding as if the event had occurred at the beginning of the earliest period reported. For example, upon a two-for-one bonus issue, the number of shares outstanding prior to the issue is multiplied by a factor of three to obtain the new total number of shares, or by a factor of two to obtain the number of additional shares.


    Appendix III illustrates the computation of weighted average number of equity shares in case of a bonus issue during the period.


    25. The issue of equity shares at the time of exercise or conversion of potential equity shareswill not usually give rise to a bonus element, since the potential equity shares will usually have been issued for full value, resulting in a proportionate change in the resources available to the enterprise. In a rights issue, on the other hand, the exercise price is often less than the fair value of the shares. Therefore, a rights issue usually includes a bonus element.

    The number of equity shares to be used in calculating basic earnings per share for all periods prior to the rights issue is the number of equity shares outstanding prior to the issue, multiplied by the following factor: Fair value per share immediately prior to the exercise of rights Theoretical ex-rights fair value per share The theoretical ex-rights fair value per share is calculated by adding the aggregate fair value of the shares immediately prior to the exercise of the rights to the proceeds fromthe exercise of the rights, and dividing by the number of shares outstanding after the exercise of the rights. Where the rights themselves are to be publicly traded separately from the shares prior
    to the exercise date, fair value for the purposes of this calculation is established at the close of the last day onwhich the shares are traded together with the rights.


    Appendix IV illustrates the computation of weighted average number of equity shares in case of a rights issue during the period.

  8. #8
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Diluted Earnings Per Share of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 Earning Per Share - AS 20

    Diluted Earnings Per Share


    26. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period should be adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.


    27. In calculating diluted earnings per share, effect is given to all dilutive potential equity shares that were outstanding during the period, that is:

    (a) the net profit for the period attributable to equity shares is:

    (i) increased by the amount of dividends recognised in the period in respect of the dilutive potential equity shares as adjusted for any attributable change in tax expense for the period;


    (ii) increased by the amount of interest recognised in the period in respect of the dilutive potential equity shares as adjusted for any attributable change in tax expense for the period; and


    (iii) adjusted for the after-tax amount of any other changes in expenses or income that would result from the conversion of the dilutive potential equity shares.


    (b) theweighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is increased by the weighted average number of additional equity shares which would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

    28. For the purpose of this Statement, share application money pending allotment or any advance share application money as at the balance sheet date, which is not statutorily required to be kept separately and is being utilised in the business of the enterprise, is treated in the same manner as
    dilutive potential equity shares for the purpose of calculation of diluted earnings per share.

    Earnings - Diluted

    29. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the amount of net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders, as calculated in accordance with paragraph 11, should
    be adjusted by the following, after taking into account any attributable change in tax expense for the period:

    (a) any dividends on dilutive potential equity shares which have been deducted in arriving at the net profit attributable to equity shareholders as calculated in accordance with paragraph 11;

    (b) interest recognised in the period for the dilutive potential equity shares; and

    (c) any other changes in expenses or income that would result from the conversion of the dilutive potential equity shares.


    30. After the potential equity shares are converted into equity shares, the dividends, interest and other expenses or income associatedwith those potential equity shares will no longer be incurred (or earned). Instead, the new equity shares will be entitled to participate in the net profit attributable to equity shareholders. Therefore, the net profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders calculated in accordance with paragraph 11 is increased by the amount of dividends, interest and other expenses that will be saved, and reduced by the amount of income thatwill cease to accrue, on the conversion of the dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares. The amounts of dividends, interest and other expenses or income are adjusted for any attributable taxes.


    Appendix V illustrates the computation of diluted earnings in case of convertible debentures.


    31. The conversion of some potential equity shares may lead to consequential changes in other items of income or expense. For example, the reduction of interest expense related to potential equity shares and the resulting increase in net profit for the period may lead to an increase in the
    expense relating to a non-discretionary employee profit sharing plan. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period is adjusted for any such consequential changes in income or expenses.

    Per Share - Diluted

    32. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the number of equity shares should be the aggregate of the weighted average number of equity shares calculated in accordance with paragraphs 15 and 22, and the weighted average number of equity shares which would be issued on
    the conversion of all the dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares.

    Dilutive potential equity shares should be deemed to have been converted into equity shares at the beginning of the period or, if issued later, the date of the issue of the potential equity shares.


    33. The number of equity shares which would be issued on the conversion of dilutive potential equity shares is determined fromthe terms of the potential equity shares. The computation assumes the most advantageous conversion rate or exercise price fromthe standpoint of the holder of the potential equity shares.


    34. Equity shareswhich are issuable upon the satisfaction of certain conditions resulting from contractual arrangements (contingently issuable shares) are considered outstanding and included in the computation of both the basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share from the date when the conditions under a contract are met. If the conditions have not been met, for computing the diluted earnings per share, contingently issuable shares are included as of the beginning of the period (or as of the date of the contingent share agreement, if later).Thenumber of contingently issuable shares included in this case in computing the diluted earnings per share is based on the number of shares that would be issuable if the end of the reporting period was the end of the contingency period. Restatement is not permitted if the conditions are not met when the contingency period actually expires subsequent to the end of the reporting period. The provisions of this paragraph apply equally to potentialequityshares that are issuable upon the satisfaction of certain conditions (contingently issuable potential equity shares).

    35. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, an enterprise should assume the exercise of dilutive options and other dilutive potential equity shares of the enterprise. The assumed proceeds from these issues should be considered to have been received from the issue of shares at fair value. The difference between the number of shares issuable and the number of shares that would have been issued at fair value should be treated as an issue of equity shares for no consideration.


    36. Fair value for this purpose is the average price of the equity shares during the period. Theoretically, everymarket transaction for an enterprise’s equity shares could be included in determining the average price. As a practical matter, however, a simple average of last six months weekly closing prices are usually adequate for use in computing the average price.


    37. Options and other share purchase arrangements are dilutive when they would result in the issue of equity shares for less than fair value. The amount of the dilution is fair value less the issue price. Therefore, in order to calculate diluted earnings per share, each such arrangement is treated as consisting of:

    (a) a contract to issue a certain number of equity shares at their average fair value during the period. The shares to be so issued are fairly priced and are assumed to be neither dilutive nor antidilutive. They are ignored in the computation of diluted earnings per share; and


    (b) a contract to issue the remaining equity shares for no consideration. Such equity shares generate no proceeds and have no effect on the net profit attributable to equity shares outstanding. Therefore, such shares are dilutive and are added to the number of equity shares outstanding in the computation of diluted earnings per share.


    Appendix VI illustrates the effects of share options on diluted earnings per share.


    38. To the extent that partly paid shares are not entitled to participate in dividends during the reporting period they are considered the equivalent of warrants or options.

  9. #9
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Dilutive Potential Equity Shares of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earning Per Share - AS 20

    Dilutive Potential Equity Shares


    39. Potential equity shares should be treated as dilutive when, and only when, their conversion to equity shares would decrease net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations.


    40. An enterprise uses net profit fromcontinuing ordinary activities as “the control figure” that is used to establish whether potential equity shares are dilutive or anti-dilutive. The net profit fromcontinuing ordinary activities is the net profit from ordinary activities (as defined in AS 5) after deducting preference dividends and any attributable tax thereto and after excluding items relating to discontinued operations .

    41. Potential equity shares are anti-dilutive when their conversion to equity shares would increase earnings per share from continuing ordinary activities or decrease loss per share fromcontinuing ordinary activities. The effects of anti-dilutive potential equity shares are ignored in calculating diluted earnings per share.


    42. In considering whether potential equity shares are dilutive or anti-dilutive, each issue or series of potential equity shares is considered separately rather than in aggregate. The sequence in which potential equity shares are considered may affect whether or not they are dilutive. Therefore, in order to maximise the dilution of basic earnings per share, each issue or series of potential equity shares is considered in sequence from the most dilutive to the least dilutive. For the purpose of determining the sequence from most dilutive to least dilutive potential equity shares, the earnings per
    incremental potential equity share is calculated. Where the earnings per incremental share is the least, the potential equity share is considered most dilutive and vice-versa.


    AppendixVII illustrates themanner of determining the order inwhich dilutive securities should be included in the computation ofweighted average number of shares.


    43. Potential equity shares are weighted for the period they were outstanding. Potential equity shares that were cancelled or allowed to lapse during the reporting period are included in the computation of diluted earnings per share only for the portion of the period during which they were
    outstanding. Potential equity shares that have been converted into equity shares during the reporting period are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share fromthe beginning of the period to the date of conversion; from the date of conversion, the resulting equity shares are included in computing both basic and diluted earnings per share.

  10. #10
    Accounting Standards
    Guest

    Default Restatement of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20

    Restatement of Accounting Standard (AS) 20 - Earnings Per Share - AS 20


    44. If the number of equity or potential equity shares outstanding increases as a result of a bonus issue or share split or decreases as a result of a reverse share split (consolidation of shares), the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share should be adjusted for all the periods presented. If these changes occur after the balance sheet date but before the date on which the financial statements are approved by the board of directors, the per share calculations for those financial statements and any prior period financial statements presented should be based on the new number of shares. When per share calculations reflect such changes in the number of shares, that fact should be disclosed.

    45. An enterprise does not restate diluted earnings per share of any prior period presented for changes in the assumptions used or for the conversion of potential equity shares into equity shares outstanding.

    46. An enterprise is encouraged to provide a description of equity share transactions or potential equity share transactions, other than bonus issues, share splits and reverse share splits (consolidation of shares) which occur after the balance sheet date when they are of such importance that non-disclosurewould affect the ability of the users of the financial statements
    to make proper evaluations and decisions. Examples of such transactions include:

    (a) the issue of shares for cash;

    (b) the issue of shares when the proceeds are used to repay debt or preference shares outstanding at the balance sheet date;

    (c) the cancellation of equity shares outstanding at the balance sheet date;

    (d) the conversion or exercise of potential equity shares, outstanding at the balance sheet date, into equity shares;

    (e) the issue of warrants, options or convertible securities; and

    (f) the satisfaction of conditions that would result in the issue of contingently issuable shares.


    47. Earnings per share amounts are not adjusted for such transactions occurring after the balance sheet date because such transactions do not affect the amount of capital used to produce the net profit or loss for the period.

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