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Thread: 14 Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

  1. #1
    Accounting Standards
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    Default 14 Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Accounting Standard (AS) 14
    (issued 1994)
    Accounting forAmalgamations

    (This Accounting Standard includes paragraphs 28-46 set in
    bold italic type and paragraphs 1-27 set in plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold italic type indicate the main principles. This
    Accounting Standard should be read in the context of the Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards
    .)

    The following is the text ofAccounting Standard (AS) 14, ‘Accounting for Amalgamations’, issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.


    This standard will come into effect in respect of accounting periods commencing on or after 1.4.1995 and will be mandatory in nature.
    The Guidance Note on Accounting Treatment of Reserves in Amalgamations issued by the Institute in 1983 will stand withdrawn from the aforesaid date.


  2. #2
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Introduction of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Introduction of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    1. This statement deals with accounting for amalgamations and the treatment of any resultant goodwill or reserves. This statement is directed principally to companies although some of its requirements also apply to financial statements of other enterprises.


    2. This statement does not deal with cases of acquisitions which arise when there is a purchase by one company (referred to as the acquiring company) of the whole or part of the shares, or the whole or part of the assets, of another company (referred to as the acquired company) in consideration for payment in cash or by issue of shares or other securities in the acquiring company or partly in one form and partly in the other. The distinguishing feature of an acquisition is that the acquired company is not dissolved and its separate entity continues to exist.

  3. #3
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    Default Definitions of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Definitions of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    3. The following terms are used in this statement with the meanings specified:


    (a) Amalgamation means an amalgamation pursuant to the provisions of the CompaniesAct, 1956 or any other statutewhich may be applicable to companies.


    (b) Transferor company means the company which is amalgamated into another company.


    (c) Transferee company means the company into which a transferor company is amalgamated.


    (d) Reserve means the portion of earnings, receipts or other surplus of an enterprise (whether capital or revenue) appropriated by the management for a general or a specific purpose other than a
    provision for depreciation or diminution in the value of assets or for a known liability.


    (e) Amalgamation in the nature of merger is an amalgamation which satisfies all the following
    conditions.

    (i) All the assets and liabilities of the transferor company become, after amalgamation, the assets and liabilities of the transferee company.

    (ii) Shareholders holding not less than 90%of the face value of the equity shares of the transferor company (other than the equity shares already held therein, immediately before the amalgamation, by the transferee company or its subsidiaries or their nominees) become equity shareholders of the
    transferee company by virtue of the amalgamation.

    (iii) The consideration for the amalgamation receivable by those equity shareholders of the transferor company who agree to become equity shareholders of the transferee company
    is discharged by the transferee companywholly by the issue of equity shares in the transferee company, except that cash may be paid in respect of any fractional shares.


    (iv) The business of the transferor company is intended to be carried on, after the amalgamation, by the transferee company.


    (v) No adjustment is intended to be made to the book values of the assets and liabilities of the transferor company when they are incorporated in the financial statements of the transferee company except to ensure uniformity of accounting policies.

    (f) Amalgamation in the nature of purchase is an amalgamation which does not satisfy any one ormore of the conditions specified in sub-paragraph (e) above.


    (g) Consideration for the amalgamation means the aggregate of the shares and other securities issued and the payment made in the form of cash or other assets by the transferee company to the
    shareholders of the transferor company.


    (h) Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between a knowledgeable, willing buyer and a knowledgeable, willing seller in an arm’s length transaction.


    (i) Pooling of interests is a method of accounting for amalgamations the object of which is to account for the amalgamation as if the separate businesses of the amalgamating companies were intended to be continued by the transferee company. Accordingly, only minimal changes are made in aggregating the individual financial statements of the amalgamating companies.

  4. #4
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Types of Amalgamations of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Explanation

    Types of Amalgamations


    4. Generally speaking, amalgamations fall into two broad categories. In the first category are those amalgamations where there is a genuine pooling not merely of the assets and liabilities of the amalgamating companies but also of the shareholders’ interests and of the businesses of these companies. Such amalgamations are amalgamations which are in the nature of ‘merger’ and the accounting treatment of such amalgamations should ensure that the resultant figures of assets, liabilities, capital and reserves more or less represent the sum of the relevant figures of the amalgamating companies. In the second category are those amalgamations which are in effect a mode by which one company acquires another company and, as a consequence, the shareholders of the company which is acquired normally do not continue to have a proportionate share in the equity of the combined company, or the business of the company which is acquired is not intended to be continued.

    Such amalgamations are amalgamations in the nature of ‘purchase’.


    5. An amalgamation is classified as an ‘amalgamation in the nature of merger’ when all the conditions listed in paragraph 3(e) are satisfied. There are, however, differing views regarding the nature of any further conditions that may apply. Some believe that, in addition to an exchange of equity
    shares, it is necessary that the shareholders of the transferor company obtain a substantial share in the transferee company even to the extent that it should not be possible to identify any one party as dominant therein. This belief is based in part on the view that the exchange of control of one company for an insignificant share in a larger company does not amount to a mutual sharing of risks and benefits.

    6. Others believe that the substance of an amalgamation in the nature of merger is evidenced by meeting certain criteria regarding the relationship of the parties, such as the former independence of the amalgamating companies, the manner of their amalgamation, the absence of planned
    transactions that would undermine the effect of the amalgamation, and the continuing participation by themanagement of the transferor company in the management of the transferee company after the amalgamation.

  5. #5
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    Default Methods of Accounting for Amalgamations of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Methods of Accounting for Amalgamations of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    7. There are two main methods of accounting for amalgamations:

    (a) the pooling of interests method; and

    (b) the purchase method.

    8. The use of the pooling of interests method is confined to circumstances which meet the criteria referred to in paragraph 3(e) for an amalgamation in the nature of merger.


    9. The object of the purchase method is to account for the amalgamation by applying the same principles as are applied in the normal purchase of assets. This method is used in accounting for amalgamations in the nature of purchase.


    The Pooling of Interests Method


    10. Under the pooling of interests method, the assets, liabilities and reserves of the transferor company are recorded by the transferee company at their existing carrying amounts (after making the adjustments required in paragraph 11).


    11. If, at the time of the amalgamation, the transferor and the transferee companies have conflicting accounting policies, a uniformset of accounting policies is adopted following the amalgamation. The effects on the financial statements of any changes in accounting policies are reported in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 5, ‘Prior Period and Extraordinary Items
    and Changes in Accounting Policies’.


    The Purchase Method


    12. Under the purchase method, the transferee company accounts for the amalgamation either by incorporating the assets and liabilities at their existing carrying amounts or by allocating the consideration to individual identifiable assets and liabilities of the transferor company on the basis of their fair values at the date of amalgamation. The identifiable assets and liabilities may include assets and liabilities not recorded in the financial statements of the transferor company.


    13. Where assets and liabilities are restated on the basis of their fair values, the determination of fair values may be influenced by the intentions of the transferee company. For example, the transferee company may have a specialised use for an asset,which is not available to other potential buyers. The transferee company may intend to effect changes in the activities of the transferor company which necessitate the creation of specific provisions for the expected costs, e.g. planned employee termination and plant relocation costs.

  6. #6
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Consideration of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Consideration of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    14. The consideration for the amalgamation may consist of securities, cash or other assets. In determining the value of the consideration, an assessment is made of the fair value of its elements. A variety of techniques is applied in arriving at fair value. For example, when the consideration includes securities, the value fixed by the statutory authorities may be taken to be the fair value. In case of other assets, the fair value may be determined by reference to the market value of the assets given up. Where the market value of the assets given up cannot be reliably assessed, such assets may be valued at their respective net book values.


    15. Many amalgamations recognise that adjustments may have to be made to the consideration in the light of one or more future events. When the additional payment is probable and can reasonably be estimated at the date of amalgamation, it is included in the calculation of the consideration. In all
    other cases, the adjustment is recognised as soon as the amount is determinable [see Accounting Standard (AS) 4, Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date].

  7. #7
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Treatment of Reserves on Amalgamation of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Treatment of Reserves on Amalgamation


    16. If the amalgamation is an ‘amalgamation in the nature of merger’, the identity of the reserves is preserved and they appear in the financial statements of the transferee company in the same form in which they appeared in the financial statements of the transferor company. Thus, for example, the General Reserve of the transferor company becomes the General Reserve of the transferee company, the Capital Reserve of the transferor company becomes the Capital Reserve of the transferee company and the Revaluation Reserve of the transferor company becomes the Revaluation Reserve of the transferee company. As a result of preserving the identity, reserves which are available for distribution as dividend before the amalgamation would also be available for distribution as dividend after the amalgamation. The difference between the amount recorded as share capital issued (plus any additional consideration in the formof cash or other assets) and the amount of share capital of the transferor company is adjusted in reserves in the financial statements of the transferee company.

    17. If the amalgamation is an ‘amalgamation in the nature of purchase’, the identity of the reserves, other than the statutory reserves dealt with in paragraph 18, is not preserved. The amount of the consideration is deducted from the value of the net assets of the transferor company acquired by the transferee company. If the result of the computation is negative, the difference is debited to goodwill arising on amalgamation and dealt with in the manner stated in paragraphs 19-20. If the result of the computation is positive, the difference is credited to Capital Reserve.


    18. Certain reserves may have been created by the transferor company pursuant to the requirements of, or to avail of the benefits under, the Incometax Act, 1961; for example, Development Allowance Reserve, or Investment Allowance Reserve. The Act requires that the identity of the reserves should be preserved for a specified period. Likewise, certain other reserves may have been created in the financial statements of the transferor company in terms of the requirements of other statutes.Though, normally, in an amalgamation in the nature of purchase, the identity of reserves is not preserved, an exception is made in respect of reserves of the aforesaid
    nature (referred to hereinafter as ‘statutory reserves’) and such reserves retain their identity in the financial statements of the transferee company in the same form in which they appeared in the financial statements of the transferor company, so long as their identity is required to be maintained to comply with the relevant statute. This exception is made only in those amalgamations where the requirements of the relevant statute for recording the statutory reserves in the books of the transferee company are complied with. In such cases the statutory reserves are recorded in the financial statements of the transferee company by a corresponding debit to a suitable account head (e.g., ‘Amalgamation Adjustment Account’) which is disclosed as a part of ‘miscellaneous expenditure’ or other similar category in the balance sheet.When the identity of the statutory reserves is no longer required to be maintained, both the reserves and the aforesaid account are
    reversed.

  8. #8
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Treatment of Goodwill Arising on Amalgamation of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Treatment of Goodwill Arising on Amalgamation of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    19. Goodwill arising on amalgamation represents a payment made in anticipation of future income and it is appropriate to treat it as an asset to be amortised to income on a systematic basis over its useful life. Due to the nature of goodwill, it is frequently difficult to estimate its useful life with reasonable certainty. Such estimation is, therefore, made on a prudent basis.

    Accordingly, it is considered appropriate to amortise goodwill over a period not exceeding five years unless a somewhat longer period can be justified.

    20. Factors which may be considered in estimating the useful life of goodwill arising on amalgamation include:

    • the foreseeable life of the business or industry;
    • the effects of product obsolescence, changes in demand and other economic factors;
    • the service life expectancies of key individuals or groups of employees;
    • expected actions by competitors or potential competitors; and
    • legal, regulatory or contractual provisions affecting the useful life.

  9. #9
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Balance of Profit and Loss Account of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Balance of Profit and Loss Account of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    21. In the case of an ‘amalgamation in the nature of merger’, the balance of the Profit and Loss Account appearing in the financial statements of the transferor company is aggregated with the corresponding balance appearing in the financial statements of the transferee company. Alternatively, it is transferred to the General Reserve, if any.


    22. In the case of an ‘amalgamation in the nature of purchase’, the balance of the Profit and Loss Account appearing in the financial statements of the transferor company, whether debit or credit, loses its identity.

  10. #10
    Accounting Standards
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    Default Treatment of Reserves Specified in A Scheme of Amalgamation of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14

    Treatment of Reserves Specified in A Scheme of Amalgamation of Accounting Standard 14 -Accounting for Amalgamation - AS 14


    23. The scheme of amalgamation sanctioned under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 or any other statute may prescribe the treatment to be given to the reserves of the transferor company after its amalgamation. Where the treatment is so prescribed, the same is followed. In some cases,
    the scheme of amalgamation sanctioned under a statute may prescribe a different treatment to be given to the reserves of the transferor company after amalgamation as compared to the requirements of this Statement that would have been followed had no treatment been prescribed by the scheme. In such cases, the following disclosures are made in the first financial statements following the amalgamation:


    (a) A description of the accounting treatment given to the reserves and the reasons for following the treatment different from that prescribed in this Statement.


    (b) Deviations in the accounting treatment given to the reserves as prescribed by the scheme of amalgamation sanctioned under the statute as compared to the requirements of this Statement that
    would have been followed had no treatment been prescribed by the scheme.


    (c) The financial effect, if any, arising due to such deviation.

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