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Thread: 04 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5) - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

  1. #1
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up 04 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5) - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors



    (This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles. )

    Last edited by IND-AS; 29-01-2011 at 03:14 PM.

  2. #2
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Objective of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5) - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Objective of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors



    Objective

    1. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the cri teria for selecting and changing accounting policies, together with the accounting treatment and disclosure of changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of errors. The Standard is intended to enhance the relevance and reliability of an entity’s financial statements, and the comparability of those financial statements over time and with the financial statements of other entities.

    2. Disclosure requirements for accounting policies, except those for changes in accounting policies, are set out in Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements.


  3. #3
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Scope of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5) - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Scope of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors


    Scope

    3. This Standard shall be applied in selecting and applying accounting policies, and accounting for changes in accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and corrections of prior period errors.

    4. The tax effects of corrections of prior period errors and of retrospective adjustments made to apply changes in accounting policies are accounted for and disclosed in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes.


  4. #4
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Definitions of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 -Earlier Accounting standard (5) - Accounting Policies,Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Definitions of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors



    Definitions


    5. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements.

    A change in accounting estimate is an adjustment of the carrying amount of an asset or a liability, or the amount of the periodic consumption of an asset, that results from the assessment of the present status of, and expected future benefits and obligations associated w ith, assets and liabilities. Changes in accounting estimates result from new information or new developments and, accordingly, are not corrections of errors.

    Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs) are Standards prescribed under the Companies Act, 1956.

    Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.

    Prior period errors are omissions from, and misstatements in, the entity’s financial statements for one or more prior periods arising from a failure to use, or misuse of, reliable information that:

    (a) was available when financial statements for those periods were approved for issue; and
    (b) could reasonably be expected to have been obtained and taken into account in the preparation and presentation of those financial statements.

    Such errors include the effects of mathematical mistakes, mistakes in applying accounting policies, oversights or misinterpretations of facts, and fraud.

    Retrospective application is applying a new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions as if that policy had always been applied.

    Retrospective restatement is correcting the recognition, measurement and disclosure of amounts of elements of financial statements as if a prior period error had never occurred.

    Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so. For a particular prior period, it is impracticable to apply a change in an accounting policy retrospectively or to make a retrospective restatement to correct an error if:

    (a) the effects of the retrospective application or retrospective restatement are not determinable;

    (b) the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires assumptions about what management’s intent would have been in that period; or

    (c) the retrospective application or retrospective restatement requires significant estimates of amounts and it is impossible to distinguish objectively information about those estimates that:

    (i) provides evidence of circumstances that existed on the date(s) as at which those amounts are to be recognised,measured or disclosed; and
    (ii) would have been available when the financial statements for that prior period were approved for issue from other information.

    Prospective application of a change in accounting policy and of recognising the effect of a change in an accounting estimate, respectively, are:

    (a) applying the new accounting policy to transactions, other events and conditions occurring aft er the date as at which the policy is changed; and
    (b) recognising the effect of the change in the accounting estimate in the current and future periods affected by the change.

    6. Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India states in paragraph 26 that ‘It is assumed that users have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and study the information with reasonable diligence.’ Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.


  5. #5
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Selection and application of accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Selection and application of accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies


    Selection and application of accounting policies


    7. When an Ind AS specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, the accounting policy or policies applied to that item shall be determined by applying the Ind AS.

    8. Ind ASs set out accounting policies that result in financial statements containing relevant and reliable information about the transactions, other events and conditions to which they apply. Those pol icies need not be applied when the effect of applying them is immaterial. However, it is inappropriate to make, or leave uncorrected, immaterial departures from Ind ASs to achieve a particular presentation of an entity’s financial position, financial perfo rmance or cash flows.

    9. Ind ASs are accompanied by guidance to assist entities in applying their requirements. All such guidance states whether it is an integral part of Ind ASs. Guidance that is an integral part of the Ind ASs is mandatory. Guidance that is not an integral part of the Ind ASs does not contain requirements for financial statements.

    10. In the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management shall use its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is:

    (a) relevant to the economic decision-making needs of users; and

    (b) reliable, in that the financial statements:

    (i) represent faithfully the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the entity;
    (ii) reflect the economic substance of transactions, other events and conditions, and not merely the legal form;
    (iii) are neutral, ie free from bias;
    (iv) are prudent; and
    (v) are complete in all material respects.

    11. In making the judgement described in parag raph 10, management shall refer to, and consider the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:

    (a) the requirements in Ind ASs dealing with similar and related issues; and
    (b) the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement conce pts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the Framework.

    12. In making the judgement described in paragraph 10, management may also first consider the most recent pronouncements of International Accounting Standards Board and in absence thereof those of the other standardsetting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards, other accounting literature and accepted industry practices, to the extent that these do not conflict with the sources in paragraph 11.



  6. #6
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Consistency of accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Consistency of accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies



    Consistency of accounting policies

    13. An entity shall select and apply its accounting policies consistently for similar transactions, other events and conditions, unless an Ind AS specifically requires or permits categorisation of items for which different policies may be appropriate. If an Ind AS requires or permits such categorisation, an appropriate accounting policy shall be selected and applied consistently to each category.



  7. #7
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Changes in accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Changes in accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies



    Changes in accounting policies

    14. An entity shall change an accounting policy only if the change:

    (a) is required by an Ind AS; or

    (b) results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance or cash flows.

    15. Users of financial statements need to be able to compare the financial statements of an entity over time to identify trends in its financial position, financial performance and cash flows. Therefore, the same accounting policies are applied within each period and from one period to the next unless a change in accounting policy meets one of the criteria in paragraph 14.

    16. The following are not changes in accounting policies:

    (a) the application of an accounting policy for transacti ons, other events or conditions that differ in substance from those previously occurring; and
    (b) the application of a new accounting policy for transactions, other events or conditions that did not occur previously or were immaterial.

    17. The initial application of a policy to revalue assets in accordance with Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets is a change in an accounting policy to be dealt with as a revaluation in accordance with Ind AS 16 or Ind AS 38, rather than in accordance with this
    Standard.

    18. Paragraphs 19–31 do not apply to the change in accounting policy described in paragraph 17.



  8. #8
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Applying changes in accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Applying changes in accounting policies of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies



    Applying changes in accounting policies

    19. Subject to paragraph 23:

    (a) an entity shall account for a change in accounting policy resulting from the initial application of an Ind AS in accordance with the specific transitional provisions, if any, in that Ind AS; and
    (b)when an entity changes an accounting policy upon initial application of an Ind AS that does not include specific trans itional provisions applying to that change, or changes an accounting policy voluntarily, it shall apply the change retrospectively.

    20. For the purpose of this Standard, early application of an Ind AS is not a voluntary change in accounting policy.

    21. In the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management may, in accordance with paragraph 12, apply an accounting policy from the most recent pronouncements of International Accounting Standards Board and in absence thereof those of the other standardsetting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards. If, following an amendment of such a pronouncement, the entity chooses to change an accounting policy, that change is accoun ted for and disclosed as a voluntary change in accounting policy.


  9. #9
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Retrospective application of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Retrospective application of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies



    Retrospective application

    22. Subject to paragraph 23, when a change in accounting policy is applied retrospectively in accordance with paragraph 19(a) or (b), the entity shall adjust the opening balance of each affected component of equity for the earliest prior period presented and the other comparative amounts disclosed for each prior period presented as if the new accounting policy had always been applied.



  10. #10
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Limitations on retrospective application of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)

    Limitations on retrospective application of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 8 - Earlier Accounting standard (5)


    Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

    Accounting policies



    Limitations on retrospective application

    23. When retrospective application is required by paragraph 19(a) or (b), a change in accounting policy shall be applied retrospectively except to the extent that it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the change.

    24. When it is impracticable to determine the period-specific effects of changing an accounting policy on comparative information for one or more prior periods presented, the entity shall apply the new accounting policy to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities as at the beginning of the earliest period for which retrospective application is practicable, which may be the current period, and shall make a corresponding adjustment to the opening balance of each affected component of equity for that period.

    25. When it is impracticable to determine the cumulative effect, at the beginning of the current period, of applying a new accounting policy to all prior periods, the entity shall adjust the comparative information to apply the new accounting policy prospectively from the earliest date practicable.

    26. When an entity applies a new accounting policy retrospectively, it applies the new accounting policy to comparative information for prior periods as far back as is practicable. Retrospective application to a prior period is not practicable unless it is practicable to determine the cumulative effect on the amounts in both the opening and closing balance sheets for that period. The amount of the resulting adjustment relating to periods before those presented in the financial statements is made to the opening balance of each affected component of equity of the earliest prior period presented. Usually the adjustment is made to retained earnings. However, the adjustment may be made t o another component of equity (for example, to comply with an Ind AS). Any other information about prior periods, such as historical summaries of financial data, is also adjusted as far back as is practicable.

    27. When it is impracticable for an entity to apply a new accounting policy retrospectively, because it cannot determine the cumulative effect of applying the policy to all prior periods, the entity, in accordance with paragraph 25, applies the new policy prospectively from the start of the earliest p eriod practicable. It therefore disregards the portion of the cumulative adjustment to assets, liabilities and equity arising before that date. Changing an accounting policy is permitted even if it is impracticable to apply the policy prospectively for any prior period. Paragraphs 50– 53 provide guidance on when it is impracticable to apply a new accounting policy to one or more prior periods.


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