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Thread: 21 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

  1. #21
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Appendix - A of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Appendix - A

    Application guidance


    This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

    Profit or loss attributable to the parent entity

    A1. For the purpose of calculating earnings per share based on the consolidated financial statements, profit or loss attributable to the parent entity refers to profit or loss of the consolidated entity after adjusting for non-controlling interests.



  2. #22
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Rights issues of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Rights issues of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Appendix - A

    Rights issues

    A2. The issue of ordinary shares at the time of exercise or conversion of potential ordinary shares does not usually give rise to a bonus element. This is because the potential ordinary shares are usually issued for full value, resulting in a proportionate change in the resources available to the entity. In a rights issue, however, the exercise price is often less than the fair value of the shares. Therefore, as noted in paragraph 27(b), such a rights issue includes a bonus element. If a rights issue is offered to all existing shareholders, the number of ordinary shares to be used in calculating basic and diluted earnings per share for all periods before the rights issue is the number of ordinary shares outstanding before the issue, multiplied by the following factor:

    Fair value per share immediately before the exercise of rights

    Theoretical ex-rights fair value per share

    The theoretical ex-rights fair value per share is calculated by adding the aggregate market value of the shares immediately before the exercise of the rights to the proceeds from the exercise of the rights, and dividing by the number of shares outstanding after the exercise of the rights. Where the rights are to be publicly traded separately from the shares before the exercise date, fair value for the purposes of this calculation is established at the close of the last day on which the shares are traded together with the rights.




  3. #23
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Control number of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Control number of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Control number


    A3. To illustrate the application of the control number notion described in paragraphs 42 and 43, assume that an entity has profit from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity of Rs. 4,800, a loss from discontinued operations attributable to the parent entity of (Rs. 7,200), a loss attributable to the parent entity of (Rs. 2,400), and 2,000 ordinary shares and 400 potential ordinary shares outstanding. The entity’s basic earnings per share is Rs. 2.40 for continuing operations, (Rs. 3.60) for discontinued operations and (Rs. 1.20) for the loss. The 400 potential ordinary shares are included in the diluted earnings per share calculation because the resulting Rs. 2.00 earnings per share for continuing operations is dilutive, assuming no profit or loss impact of those 400 potential ordinary shares. Because profit from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity is the control number, the entity also includes those 400 potential ordinary shares in the calculation of the other earnings per share amounts, even though the resulting earnings per share amounts are antidilutive to their comparable basic earnings per share amounts, ie the loss per share is less [(Rs. 3.00) per share for the loss from discontinued operations and (Rs.1.00) per share for the loss].


  4. #24
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Average market price of ordinary shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Average market price of ordinary shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Average market price of ordinary shares

    A4. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the average market price of ordinary shares assumed to be issued is calculated on the basis of the average market price of the ordinary shares during the period. Theoretically, every market transaction for an entity’s ordinary shares could be included in the determination of the average market price. As a practical matter, however, a simple average of weekly or monthly prices is usually adequate.

    A5. Generally, closing market prices are adequate for calculating the average market price. When prices fluctuate widely, however, an average of the high and low prices usually produces a more representative price. The method used to calculate the average market price is used consistently unless it is no longer representative because of changed conditions. For example, an entity that uses closing market prices to calculate the average market price for several years of relatively stable prices might change to an average of high and low prices if prices start fluctuating greatly and the closing market prices no longer produce a representative average price.


  5. #25
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Options, warrants and their equivalents of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Options, warrants and their equivalents of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Options, warrants and their equivalents

    A6. Options or warrants to purchase convertible instruments are assumed to be exercised to purchase the convertible instrument whenever the average prices of both the convertible instrument and the ordinary shares obtainable upon conversion are above the exercise price of the options or warrants. However, exercise is not assumed unless conversion of similar outstanding convertible instruments, if any, is also assumed.

    A7. Options or warrants may permit or require the tendering of debt or other instruments of the entity (or its parent or a subsidiary) in payment of all or a portion of the exercise price. In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants have a dilutive effect if (a) the average market price of the related ordinary shares for the period exceeds the exercise price or (b) the selling price of the instrument to be tendered is below that at which the instrument may be tendered under the option or warrant agreement and the resulting discount establishes an effective exercise price below the market price of the ordinary shares obtainable upon exercise. In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants are assumed to be exercised and the debt or other instruments are assumed to be tendered. If tendering cash is more advantageous to the option or warrant holder and the contract permits tendering cash, tendering of cash is assumed. Interest (net of tax) on any debt assumed to be tendered is added back as an adjustment to the numerator.

    A8. Similar treatment is given to preference shares that have similar provisions or to other instruments that have conversion options that permit the investor to pay cash for a more favourable conversion rate.

    A9. The underlying terms of certain options or warrants may require the proceeds received from the exercise of those instruments to be applied to redeem debt or other instruments of the entity (or its parent or a subsidiary). In the calculation of diluted earnings per share, those options or warrants are assumed to be exercised and the proceeds applied to purchase the debt at its average market price rather than to purchase ordinary shares. However, the excess proceeds received from the assumed exercise over the amount used for the assumed purchase of debt are considered (ie assumed to be used to buy back ordinary shares) in the diluted earnings per share calculation. Interest (net of tax) on any debt assumed to be purchased is added back as an adjustment to the numerator.


  6. #26
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Written put options of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Written put options of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Written put options

    A10. To illustrate the application of paragraph 63, assume that an entity has outstanding 120 written put options on its ordinary shares with an exercise price of Rs. 35. The average market price of its ordinary shares for the period is Rs. 28. In calculating diluted earnings per share, the entity assumes that it issued 150 shares at Rs. 28 per share at the beginning of the period to satisfy its put obligation of Rs. 4,200. The difference between the 150 ordinary shares issued and the 120 ordinary shares received from satisfying the put option (30 incremental ordinary shares) is added to the denominator in calculating diluted earnings per share.


  7. #27
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures or associates

    A11. Potential ordinary shares of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate convertible into either ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate, or ordinary shares of the parent, venturer or investor (the reporting entity) are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share as follows:

    (a) instruments issued by a subsidiary, joint venture or associate that enable their holders to obtain ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate are included in calculating the diluted earnings per share data of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate. Those earnings per share are then included in the reporting entity’s earnings per share calculations based on the reporting entity’s holding of the instruments of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate.

    (b) instruments of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate that are convertible into the reporting entity’s ordinary shares are considered among the potential ordinary shares of the reporting entity for the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share. Likewise, options or warrants issued by a subsidiary, joint venture or associate to purchase ordinary shares of the reporting entity are considered among the potential ordinary shares of the reporting entity in the calculation of consolidated diluted earnings per share.

    A12. For the purpose of determining the earnings per share effect of instruments issued by a reporting entity that are convertible into ordinary shares of a subsidiary, joint venture or associate, the instruments are assumed to be converted and the numerator (profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity) adjusted as necessary in accordance with paragraph 33.

    In addition to those adjustments, the numerator is adjusted for any change in the profit or loss recorded by the reporting entity (such as dividend income or equity method income) that is attributable to the increase in the number of ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate outstanding as a result of the assumed conversion. The denominator of the diluted earnings per share calculation is not affected because the number of ordinary shares of the reporting entity outstanding would not change upon assumed conversion.


  8. #28
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Participating equity instruments and two-class ordinary shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Participating equity instruments and two-class ordinary shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Participating equity instruments and two-class ordinary shares

    A13. The equity of some entities includes:

    (a) instruments that participate in dividends with ordinary shares according to a predetermined formula (for example, two for one) with, at times, an upper limit on the extent of participation (for example, up to, but not beyond, a specified amount per share).
    (b) a class of ordinary shares with a different dividend rate from that of another class of ordinary shares but without prior or senior rights.

    A14. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, conversion is assumed for those instruments described in paragraph A13 that are convertible into ordinary shares if the effect is dilutive. For those instruments that are not convertible into a class of ordinary shares, profit or loss for the period is allocated to the different classes of shares and participating equity instruments in accordance with their dividend rights or other rights to participate in undistributed earnings. To calculate basic and diluted earnings per share:

    (a) profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity is adjusted (a profit reduced and a loss increased) by the amount of dividends declared in the period for each class of shares and by the contractual amount of dividends (or interest on participating bonds) that must be paid for the period (for example, unpaid cumulative dividends).

    (b) the remaining profit or loss is allocated to ordinary shares and participating equity instruments to the extent that each instrument shares in earnings as if all of the profit or loss for the period had been distributed. The total profit or loss allocated to each class of equity instrument is determined by adding together the amount allocated for dividends and the amount allocated for a participation feature.

    (c) the total amount of profit or loss allocated to each class of equity instrument is divided by the number of outstanding instruments to which the earnings are allocated to determine the earnings per share for the instrument.

    For the calculation of diluted earnings per share, all potential ordinary shares assumed to have been issued are included in outstanding ordinary shares.


  9. #29
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Partly paid shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Partly paid shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share

    Appendix - A


    Partly paid shares

    A15. Where ordinary shares are issued but not fully paid, they are treated in the calculation of basic earnings per share as a fraction of an ordinary share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends during the period relative to a fully paid ordinary share.

    A16. To the extent that partly paid shares are not entitled to participate in dividends during the period they are treated as the equivalent of warrants or options in the calculation of diluted earnings per share. The unpaid balance is assumed to represent proceeds used to purchase ordinary shares. The number of shares included in diluted earnings per share is the difference between the number of shares subscribed and the number of shares assumed to be purchased.


  10. #30
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Appendix - B - Illustrative examples of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Appendix - B - Illustrative examples of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Appendix - B

    Ind AS 33 Earnings per Share


    Illustrative examples

    These examples accompany, but are not part of, Ind AS 33.

    Example - 1 - Increasing rate preference shares

    Reference: Ind AS 33, paragraphs 12 and 15

    Entity D issued non-convertible, non-redeemable class A cumulative preference shares of Rs. 100 par value on 1 January 20X1. The class A preference shares are entitled to a cumulative annual dividend of Rs. 7 per share starting in 20X4.

    At the time of issue, the market rate dividend yield on the class A preference shares was 7 per cent a year. Thus, Entity D could have expected to receive proceeds of approximately Rs. 100 per class A preference share if the dividend rate of Rs. 7 per share had been in effect at the date of issue.

    In consideration of the dividend payment terms, however, the class A preference shares were issued at Rs. 81.63 per share, ie at a discount of Rs. 18.37 per share. The issue price can be calculated by taking the present value of Rs. 100, discounted at 7 per cent over a three-year period.

    Because the shares are classified as equity, the original issue discount is amortised to retained earnings using the effective interest method and treated as a preference dividend for earnings per share purposes. To calculate basic earnings per share, the following imputed dividend per class A preference share is deducted to determine the profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity:

    Year
    Carrying
    amount of class
    A preference
    shares 1
    January
    Imputed(a)
    Dividend
    Carrying
    amount(b) of
    class A
    preference
    shares
    31 December
    Dividend paid

    Rs.
    Rs.
    Rs.
    Rs.
    20X1
    81.63
    5.71
    87.34

    20X2
    87.34
    6.12
    93.46

    20X3
    93.46
    6.54
    100.00

    Thereafter:
    100.00
    7.00
    107.00
    (7.00)

    (a) at 7 %
    (b) This is before dividend payment.




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