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Thread: 21 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

  1. #1
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up 21 - Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    (This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles. )



  2. #2
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Objective of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Objective of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Objective

    1. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe principles for the determination and presentation of earnings per share, so as to improve performance comparisons between different entities in the same reporting period and between different reporting periods for the same entity. Even though earnings per share data have limitations because of the different accounting policies that may be used form determining ‘earnings’, a consistently determined denominator enhances financial reporting. The focus of this Standard is on the denominator of the earnings per share calculation.


  3. #3
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Scope of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Scope of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Scope

    2. This Indian Accounting Standard shall apply to companies that have issued ordinary shares1 to which Indian Accounting Standards notified under Part I of the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules _____- apply.

    [Refer to Appendix 1]

    3. An entity that discloses earnings per share shall calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with this Standard.

    4. When an entity presents both consolidated financial statements and separate financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, the disclosures required by this Standard shall be presented both in the consolidated financial statements and separate financial statements. In consolidated financial statements such disclosures shall be based on consolidated information and in separate financial statements such disclosures shall be based on information given in separate financial statements. An entity shall not present in consolidated financial statements, earnings per share based on the information given in separate financial statements and shall not present in separate financial statements, earnings per share based on the information given in consolidated financial statements.

    4A. [Refer to Appendix 1]


    Note-

    1
    In Indian context, the term ‘ordinary shares’ is equivalent to ‘equity shares’.


  4. #4
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Definitions of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Definitions of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Definitions

    5. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

    Antidilution is an increase in earnings per share or a reduction in loss per share resulting from the assumption that convertible instruments are converted, that options or warrants are exercised, or that ordinary shares are issued upon the satisfaction of specified conditions.

    A contingent share agreement is an agreement to issue shares that is dependent on the satisfaction of specified conditions.

    Contingently issuable ordinary shares are ordinary shares issuable for little or no cash or other consideration upon the satisfaction of specified conditions in a contingent share agreement.

    Dilution is a reduction in earnings per share or an increase in loss per share resulting from the assumption that convertible instruments are converted, that options or warrants are exercised, or that ordinary shares are issued upon the satisfaction of specified conditions.

    Options, warrants and their equivalents are financial instruments that give the holder the right to purchase ordinary shares.

    An ordinary share is an equity instrument that is subordinate to all other classes of equity instruments.

    A potential ordinary share is a financial instrument or other contract that may entitle its holder to ordinary shares.

    Put options on ordinary shares are contracts that give the holder the right to sell ordinary shares at a specified price for a given period.

    6. Ordinary shares participate in profit for the period only after other types of shares such as preference shares have participated. An entity may have more than one class of ordinary shares. Ordinary shares of the same class have the same rights to receive dividends.

    7. Examples of potential ordinary shares are:

    (a) financial liabilities or equity instruments, including preference shares, that are convertible into ordinary shares;
    (b) options and warrants;
    (c) shares that would be issued upon the satisfaction of conditions resulting from contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of a business or other assets.

    8. Terms defined in Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation are used in this Standard with the meanings specified in paragraph 11 of Ind AS 32, unless otherwise noted. Ind AS 32 defines financial instrument, financial asset, financial liability, equity instrument and fair value, and provides guidance on applying those definitions.


  5. #5
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Measurement - Basic earnings per share of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Measurement - Basic earnings per share of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Measurement


    Basic earnings per share

    9. An entity shall calculate basic earnings per share amounts for profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity and, if presented, profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to those equity holders.

    10. Basic earnings per share shall be calculated by dividing profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity (the numerator) by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding (the denominator) during the period.

    11. The objective of basic earnings per share information is to provide a measure of the interests of each ordinary share of a parent entity in the performance of the entity over the reporting period.



  6. #6
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Basic earnings per share - Earnings of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Basic earnings per share - Earnings of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Earnings

    12. For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the amounts attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity in respect of:

    (a) profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to the parent entity; and
    (b) profit or loss attributable to the parent entity

    shall be the amounts in (a) and (b) adjusted for the after-tax amounts of preference dividends, differences arising on the settlement of preference shares, and other similar effects of preference shares classified as equity.

    Where any item of income or expense which is otherwise required to be recognized in profit or loss in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards is debited or credited to securities premium account/other reserves, the amount in respect thereof shall be deducted from profit or loss from continuing operations for the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share.

    13. All items of income and expense attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity that are recognised in a period, including tax expense and dividends on preference shares classified as liabilities are included in the determination of profit or loss for the period attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity (see Ind AS 1).

    14. The after-tax amount of preference dividends that is deducted from profit or loss is:

    (a) the after-tax amount of any preference dividends on non-cumulative preference shares declared in respect of the period; and
    (b) the after-tax amount of the preference dividends for cumulative preference shares required for the period, whether or not the dividends have been declared. The amount of preference dividends for the period does not include the amount of any preference dividends for cumulative preference shares paid or declared during the current period in respect of previous periods.

    15. Preference shares that provide for a low initial dividend to compensate an entity for selling the preference shares at a discount, or an above-market dividend in later periods to compensate investors for purchasing preference shares at a premium, are sometimes referred to as increasing rate preference shares. Any original issue discount or premium on increasing rate preference shares is amortised to retained earnings using the effective interest method and treated as a preference dividend for the purposes of calculating earnings per share (irrespective of whether such discount or premium is debited or credited to securities premium account).

    16. Preference shares may be repurchased under an entity’s tender offer to the holders. The excess of the fair value of the consideration paid to the preference shareholders over the carrying amount of the preference shares represents a return to the holders of the preference shares and a charge to retained earnings for the entity. This amount is deducted in calculating profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity.

    17. Early conversion of convertible preference shares may be induced by an entity through favourable changes to the original conversion terms or the payment of additional consideration. The excess of the fair value of the ordinary shares or other consideration paid over the fair value of the ordinary shares issuable under the original conversion terms is a return to the preference shareholders, and is deducted in calculating profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity.

    18. Any excess of the carrying amount of preference shares over the fair value of the consideration paid to settle them is added in calculating profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity.


  7. #7
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Basic earnings per share - Shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Basic earnings per share - Shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Shares

    19. For the purpose of calculating basic earnings per share, the number of ordinary shares shall be the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period.

    20. Using the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period reflects the possibility that the amount of shareholders’ capital varied during the period as a result of a larger or smaller number of shares being outstanding at any time. The weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period is the number of ordinary shares outstanding at the beginning of the period, adjusted by the number of ordinary shares bought back or issued during the period multiplied by a time-weighting factor. The time-weighting factor is the number of days that the shares are outstanding as a proportion of the total number of days in the period; a reasonable approximation of the weighted average is adequate in many circumstances.

    21. Shares are usually included in the weighted average number of shares from the date consideration is receivable (which is generally the date of their issue), for example:

    (a) ordinary shares issued in exchange for cash are included when cash is receivable;
    (b) ordinary shares issued on the voluntary reinvestment of dividends on ordinary or preference shares are included when dividends are reinvested;
    (c) ordinary shares issued as a result of the conversion of a debt instrument to ordinary shares are included from the date that interest ceases to accrue;
    (d) ordinary shares issued in place of interest or principal on other financial instruments are included from the date that interest ceases to accrue;
    (e) ordinary shares issued in exchange for the settlement of a liability of the entity are included from the settlement date;
    (f) ordinary shares issued as consideration for the acquisition of an asset other than cash are included as of the date on which the acquisition is recognised; and
    (g) ordinary shares issued for the rendering of services to the entity are included as the services are rendered.

    The timing of the inclusion of ordinary shares is determined by the terms and conditions attaching to their issue. Due consideration is given to the substance of any contract associated with the issue.

    22. Ordinary shares issued as part of the consideration transferred in a business combination are included in the weighted average number of shares from the acquisition date. This is because the acquirer incorporates into its statement of profit and loss the acquiree’s profits and losses from that date.

    23. Ordinary shares that will be issued upon the conversion of a mandatorily convertible instrument are included in the calculation of basic earnings per share from the date the contract is entered into.

    24. Contingently issuable shares are treated as outstanding and are included in the calculation of basic earnings per share only from the date when all necessary conditions are satisfied (ie the events have occurred). Shares that are issuable solely after the passage of time are not contingently issuable shares, because the passage of time is a certainty. Outstanding ordinary shares that are contingently returnable (ie subject to recall) are not treated as outstanding and are excluded from the calculation of basic earnings per share until the date the shares are no longer subject to recall.

    25. [Refer to Appendix 1]

    26. The weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented shall be adjusted for events, other than the conversion of potential ordinary shares, that have changed the number of ordinary shares outstanding without a corresponding change in resources.

    27. Ordinary shares may be issued, or the number of ordinary shares outstanding may be reduced, without a corresponding change in resources. Examples include:

    (a) a capitalisation or bonus issue (sometimes referred to as a stock dividend);
    (b) a bonus element in any other issue, for example a bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders;
    (c) a share split; and
    (d) a reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

    28. In a capitalisation or bonus issue or a share split, ordinary shares are issued to existing shareholders for no additional consideration. Therefore, the number of ordinary shares outstanding is increased without an increase in resources. The number of ordinary shares outstanding before the event is adjusted for the proportionate change in the number of ordinary shares outstanding as if the event had occurred at the beginning of the earliest period presented. For example, on a two-for-one bonus issue, the number of ordinary shares outstanding before the issue is multiplied by three to obtain the new total number of ordinary shares, or by two to obtain the number of additional ordinary shares.

    29. A consolidation of ordinary shares generally reduces the number of ordinary shares outstanding without a corresponding reduction in resources. However, when the overall effect is a share repurchase at fair value, the reduction in the number of ordinary shares outstanding is the result of a corresponding reduction in resources. An example is a share consolidation combined with a special dividend. The weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding for the period in which the combined transaction takes place is adjusted for the reduction in the number of ordinary shares from the date the special dividend is recognised.


  8. #8
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Diluted earnings per share of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Diluted earnings per share of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Diluted earnings per share

    30. An entity shall calculate diluted earnings per share amounts for profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity and, if presented, profit or loss from continuing operations attributable to those equity holders.

    31. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, an entity shall adjust profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity, and the weighted average number of shares outstanding, for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.

    32 The objective of diluted earnings per share is consistent with that of basic earnings per share—to provide a measure of the interest of each ordinary share in the performance of an entity—while giving effect to all dilutive potential ordinary shares outstanding during the period. As a result:

    (a) profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity is increased by the after-tax amount of dividends and interest recognised in the period in respect of the dilutive potential ordinary shares and is adjusted for any other changes in income or expense that would result from the conversion of the dilutive potential ordinary shares; and

    (b) the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding is increased by the weighted average number of additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.


  9. #9
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Earnings of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Earnings of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Earnings

    33. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, an entity shall adjust profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity, as calculated in accordance with paragraph 12, by the after-tax effect of:

    (a) any dividends or other items related to dilutive potential ordinary shares deducted in arriving at profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity as calculated in accordance with paragraph 12;
    (b) any interest recognised in the period related to dilutive potential ordinary shares; and
    (c) any other changes in income or expense that would result from the conversion of the dilutive potential ordinary shares.

    34. After the potential ordinary shares are converted into ordinary shares, the items identified in paragraph 33(a)–(c) no longer arise. Instead, the new ordinary shares are entitled to participate in profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity. Therefore, profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity calculated in accordance with paragraph 12 is adjusted for the items identified in paragraph 33(a)–(c) and any related taxes. The expenses associated with potential ordinary shares include transaction costs and discounts accounted for in accordance with the effective interest method (see paragraph 9 of AS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement).

    35. The conversion of potential ordinary shares may lead to consequential changes in income or expenses. For example, the reduction of interest expense related to potential ordinary shares and the resulting increase in profit or reduction in loss may lead to an increase in the expense related to a non-discretionary employee profit-sharing plan. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the parent entity is adjusted for any such consequential changes in income or expense.


  10. #10
    IND-AS
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    Thumbs up Shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20) - Earnings per Share

    Shares of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 33 - Earlier Accounting standard - (20)

    Earnings per Share


    Shares

    36. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the number of ordinary shares shall be the weighted average number of ordinary shares calculated in accordance with paragraphs 19 and 26, plus the weighted average number of ordinary shares that would be issued on the conversion of all the dilutive potential ordinary shares into ordinary shares. Dilutive potential ordinary shares shall be deemed to have been converted into ordinary shares at the beginning of the period or, if later, the date of the issue of the potential ordinary shares.

    37. Dilutive potential ordinary shares shall be determined independently for each period presented. The number of dilutive potential ordinary shares included in the year-to-date period is not a weighted average of the dilutive potential ordinary shares included in each interim computation.

    38. Potential ordinary shares are weighted for the period they are outstanding. Potential ordinary shares that are cancelled or allowed to lapse during the period are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share only for the portion of the period during which they are outstanding. Potential ordinary shares that are converted into ordinary shares during the period are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share from the beginning of the period to the date of conversion; from the date of conversion, the resulting ordinary shares are included in both basic and diluted earnings per share.

    39. The number of ordinary shares that would be issued on conversion of dilutive potential ordinary shares is determined from the terms of the potential ordinary shares. When more than one basis of conversion exists, the calculation assumes the most advantageous conversion rate or exercise price from the standpoint of the holder of the potential ordinary shares.

    40. A subsidiary, joint venture or associate may issue to parties other than the parent, venturer or investor potential ordinary shares that are convertible into either ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate, or ordinary shares of the parent, venturer or investor (the reporting entity). If these potential ordinary shares of the subsidiary, joint venture or associate have a dilutive effect on the basic earnings per share of the reporting entity, they are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share.


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