Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 27

Thread: Ministry of Water Resources - National Water Policy 2002.

  1. #1
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up Ministry of Water Resources - National Water Policy 2002.

    Government of India

    Ministry of Water Resources

    National Water Policy 2002
    New Delhi April, 2002


    Need for a National Water Policy


    1.1 Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. Planning,development and management of water resources need to be governed by national perspectives.

    1.2 As per the latest assessment (1993), out of the total precipitation, including snowfall, of around4000 billion cubic metre in the country, the availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is put at 1869 billion cubic metre. Because of topographical and other constraints, about 60% of this i.e. 690 billion cubic metre from surface water and 432 billion cubic metre from ground water, can be put to beneficial use. Availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined to only about three or four months in a year and varies from 100 mm in the western parts of Rajasthan to over 10000 mm at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Rivers and under ground aquifers often cut across state boundaries. Water, as a resource is one and indivisible: rainfall, river waters, surface ponds and lakes and ground water are all part of one system.

    1.3 Water is part of a larger ecological system. Realising the importance and scarcity attached to the fresh water, it has to be treated as an essential environment for sustaining all life forms.

    1.4 Water is a scarce and precious national resource to be planned, developed, conserved and managed as such, and on an integrated and environmentally sound basis, keeping in view the socio-economic aspects and needs of the States. It is one of the most crucial elements in developmental planning. As the country has entered the 21st century, efforts to develop, conserve, utilise and manage this important resource in a sustainable manner, have to be guided by the national perspective.

    1.5 Floods and droughts affect vast areas of the country, transcending state boundaries. One-sixth area of the country is drought-prone. Out of 40 million hectare of the flood prone area in the country, on an average, floods affect an area of around 7.5 million hectare per year. Approach to management of droughts and floods has to be co-ordinated and guided at the national level.

    1.6 Planning and implementation of water resources projects involve a number of socio-economic aspects and issues such as environmental sustainability, appropriate resettlement and rehabilitation of project-affected people and livestock, public health concerns of water impoundment, dam safety etc. Common approaches and guidelines are necessary on these matters. Moreover, certain problems and weaknesses have affected a large number of water resources projects all over the country. There have been substantial time and cost overruns on projects. Problems of water logging and soil salinity have emerged in some irrigation commands, leading to the degradation of agricultural land. Complex issues of equity and social justice in regard to water distribution are required to be addressed. The development, and over-exploitation of groundwater resources in certain parts of the country have raised the concern and need for judicious and scientific resource management and conservation. All these concerns need to be addressed on the basis of common policies and strategies.

    1.7 Growth process and the expansion of economic activities inevitably lead to increasing demands for water for diverse purposes: domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydro-power, thermal-power, navigation, recreation, etc. So far, the major consumptive use of water has been for irrigation. While the gross irrigation potential is estimated to have increased from 19.5 million hectare at the time of independence to about 95 million hectare by the end of the Year 1999-2000, further development of a substantial order is necessary if the food and fiber needs of our growing population are to be met with. The country’s population which is over 1027 million (2001 AD) at present is expected to reach a level of around 1390 million by 2025 AD.

    1.8 Production of food grains has increased from around 50 million tonnes in the fifties to about 208 million tonnes in the Year 1999-2000. This will have to be raised to around 350 million tonnes by the year 2025 AD. The drinking water needs of people and livestock have also to be met. Domestic and industrial water needs have largely been concentrated in or near major cities. However, the demand in rural areas is expected to increase sharply as the development programmes improve economic conditions of the rural masses. Demand for water for hydro and thermal power generation and for other industrial uses is also increasing substantially. As a result, water, which is already a scarce resource, will become even scarcer in future. This underscores the need for the utmost efficiency in water utilisation and a public awareness of the importance of its conservation.

    1.9 Another important aspect is water quality. Improvements in existing strategies, innovation of new techniques resting on a strong science and technology base are needed to eliminate the pollution of surface and ground water resources, to improve water quality. Science and technology and training have to play important roles in water resources development and management in general.

    1.10 National Water Policy was adopted in September, 1987. Since then, a number of issues and challenges have emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, the National Water Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated.

  2. #2
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Information System.

    National Water Policy 2002
    Information System

    2.1 A well developed information system, for water related data in its entirety, at the national/state level, is a prime requisite for resource planning. A standardised national information system should be established with a network of data banks and data bases, integrating and strengthening the existing Central and State level agencies and improving the quality of data and the processing capabilities.

    2.2 Standards for coding, classification, processing of data and methods/procedures for its collection should be adopted. Advances in information technology must be introduced to create a modern information system promoting free exchange of data among various agencies. Special efforts should be made to develop and continuously upgrade technological capability to collect, process and disseminate reliable data in the desired time frame.

    2.3 Apart from the data regarding water availability and actual water use, the system should also include comprehensive and reliable projections of future demands of water for diverse purposes.

  3. #3
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Water Resources Planning.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Water Resources Planning

    3.1 Water resources available to the country should be brought within the category of utilisable resources to the maximum possible extent.

    3.2 Non-conventional methods for utilisation of water such as through inter-basin transfers, artificial recharge of ground water and desalination of brackish or sea water as well as traditional water conservation practices like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top rainwater harvesting, need to be practiced to further increase the utilisable water resources. Promotion of frontier research and development, in a focused manner, for these techniques is necessary.

    3.3 Water resources development and management will have to be planned for a hydrological unit such as drainage basin as a whole or for a sub-basin, multi-sectorally, taking into account surface and ground water for sustainable use incorporating quantity and quality aspects as well as environmental considerations. All individual developmental projects and proposals should be formulated and considered within the framework of such an overall plan keeping in view the existing agreements / awards for a basin or a sub-basin so that the best possible combination of options can be selected and sustained.

    3.4 Watershed management through extensive soil conservation, catchment-area treatment, preservation of forests and increasing the forest cover and the construction of check-dams should be promoted. Efforts shall be to conserve the water in the catchment.

    3.5 Water should be made available to water short areas by transfer from other areas including transfers from one river basin to another, based on a national perspective, after taking into account the requirements of the areas/basins.

  4. #4
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Institutional Mechanism.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Institutional Mechanism

    4.1 With a view to give effect to the planning, development and management of the water resources on a hydrological unit basis, along with a multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary and participatory approach as well as integrating quality, quantity and the environmental aspects, the existing institutions at various levels under the water resources sector will have to be appropriately reoriented / reorganised and even created, wherever necessary. As maintenance of water resource schemes is under non-plan budget, it is generally being neglected. The institutional arrangements should be such that this vital aspect is given importance equal or even more than that of new constructions.

    4.2 Appropriate river basin organisations should be established for the planned development and management of a river basin as a whole or sub-basins, wherever necessary. Special multi-disciplinary units should be set up to prepare comprehensive plans taking into account not only the needs of irrigation but also harmonising various other water uses, so that the available water resources are determined and put to optimum use having regard to existing agreements or awards of Tribunals under the relevant laws. The scope and powers of the river basin organisations shall be decided by the basin states themselves.

  5. #5
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Water Allocation Priorities.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Water Allocation Priorities

    5. In the planning and operation of systems, water allocation priorities should be broadly as follows:

    · Drinking water
    · Irrigation
    · Hydro-power
    · Ecology
    · Agro-industries and non-agricultural industries
    · Navigation and other uses.

    However, the priorities could be modified or added if warranted by the area/region specific considerations.

  6. #6
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Project Planning.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Project Planning

    6.1 Water resource development projects should as far as possible be planned and developed as multipurpose projects. Provision for drinking water should be a primary consideration.

    6.2 The study of the likely impact of a project during construction and later on human lives, settlements, occupations, socio-economic, environment and other aspects shall form an essential component of project planning.

    6.3 In the planning, implementation and operation of a project, the preservation of the quality of environment and the ecological balance should be a primary consideration. The adverse impact on the environment, if any, should be minimised and should be offset by adequate compensatory measures. The project should, nevertheless, be sustainable.

    6.4 There should be an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to the planning, formulation, clearance and implementation of projects, including catchment area treatment and management, environmental and ecological aspects, the rehabilitation of affected people and command area development. The planning of projects in hilly areas should take into account the need to provide assured drinking water, possibilities of hydro-power development and the proper approach to irrigation in such areas, in the context of physical features and constraints of the basin such as steep slopes, rapid run-off and the incidence of soil erosion. The economic evaluation of projects in such areas should also take these factors into account.

    6.5 Special efforts should be made to investigate and formulate projects either in, or for the benefit of, areas inhabited by tribal or other specially disadvantaged groups such as socially weak, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. In other areas also, project planning should pay special attention to the needs of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other weaker sections of the society. The economic evaluation of projects benefiting such disadvantaged sections should also take these factors into account.

    6.6 The drainage system should form an integral part of any irrigation project right from the planning stage.

    6.7 Time and cost overruns and deficient realisation of benefits characterising most water related projects should be overcome by upgrading the quality of project preparation and management. The inadequate funding of projects should be obviated by an optimal allocation of resources on the basis of prioritisation, having regard to the early completion of on-going projects as well as the need to reduce regional imbalances.

    6.8 The involvement and participation of beneficiaries and other stakeholders should be encouraged right from the project planning stage itself.

  7. #7
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Ground Water Development.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Ground Water Development

    7.1 There should be a periodical reassessment of the ground water potential on a scientific basis, taking into consideration the quality of the water available and economic viability of its extraction.

    7.2 Exploitation of ground water resources should be so regulated as not to exceed the recharging possibilities, as also to ensure social equity. The detrimental environmental consequences of overexploitation of ground water need to be effectively prevented by the Central and State Governments. Ground water recharge projects should be developed and implemented for improving both the quality and availability of ground water resource.

    7.3 Integrated and coordinated development of surface water and ground water resources and their conjunctive use, should be envisaged right from the project planning stage and should form an integral part of the project implementation.

    7.4 Over exploitation of ground water should be avoided especially near the coast to prevent ingress of seawater into sweet water aquifers.

  8. #8
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Drinking Water.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Drinking Water

    8. Adequate safe drinking water facilities should be provided to the entire population both in urban and in rural areas. Irrigation and multipurpose projects should invariably include a drinking water component, wherever there is no alternative source of drinking water. Drinking water needs of human beings and animals should be the first charge on any available water.

  9. #9
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Irrigation.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Irrigation

    9.1 Irrigation planning either in an individual project or in a basin as a whole should take into account the irrigability of land, cost-effective irrigation options possible from all available sources of water and appropriate irrigation techniques for optimising water use efficiency. Irrigation intensity should be such as to extend the benefits of irrigation to as large a number of farm families as possible, keeping in view the need to maximise production.

    9.2 There should be a close integration of water-use and land-use policies.

    9.3 Water allocation in an irrigation system should be done with due regard to equity and social justice.
    Disparities in the availability of water between head-reach and tail-end farms and between large and small farms should be obviated by adoption of a rotational water distribution system and supply of water on a volumetric basis subject to certain ceilings and rational pricing.

    9.4 Concerted efforts should be made to ensure that the irrigation potential created is fully utilised. For this purpose, the command area development approach should be adopted in all irrigation projects.

    9.5 Irrigation being the largest consumer of fresh water, the aim should be to get optimal productivity per unit of water. Scientific water management, farm practices and sprinkler and drip system of irrigation should be adopted wherever feasible.

    9.6 Reclamation of water logged/saline affected land by scientific and cost-effective methods should form a part of command area development programme.

  10. #10
    Super Moderator
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
    Location
    NEW DELHI
    Posts
    6,224

    Thumbs up National Water Policy 2002 - Resettlement and Rehabilitation.

    National Water Policy 2002

    Resettlement and Rehabilitation

    10. Optimal use of water resources necessitates construction of storage's and the consequent resettlement and rehabilitation of population. A skeletal national policy in this regard needs to be formulated so that the project affected persons share the benefits through proper rehabilitation. States should accordingly evolve their own detailed resettlement and rehabilitation policies for the sector, taking into account the local conditions. Careful planning is necessary to ensure that the construction and rehabilitation activities proceed simultaneously and smoothly.

Tags for this Thread

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • Register / Login to post new threads
  • Register / Login to post replies
  • Register / Login to post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •