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Thread: Differences in Information Technology.

  1. #1
    sudhanshusaxena
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    Differences in Information Technology


    Note: You are reading the 9th thoroughly revised edition of the material.



    Q.No.1. Data Vs. Information.


    reading Distinction Data Information
    1. Meaning It is the smallest raw fact of life. It is the plural form of the word datum. It is the processed data.
    2. Input/Output It is the input for processing. It is the output of processing.
    3. Usefulness to the user. It is not directly useful to the user. It is directly useful to the user because of its presentation, format and design.
    4. How is it collected? It is generally collected in vouchers or source documents from which they are entered into computer. It is always presented in a well designed format, either on paper or on computer terminal.
    5. From where it is collected? Data used for a single application is collected from several departments. Information in the form of report is distributed to more than one department or business function.
    6. Volume Data for business applications is generally voluminous. Information is the way of summarizing data so that it has some use and value to the user. Summarization brings down the volume of information.
    7. Nature Data should be accurate but need not be relevant, timely or concise. Information must be relevant, accurate, timely, concise and complete and apply to the current situation.

  2. #2
    sudhanshusaxena
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    Q.No.2. Analog Vs. Digital Computer.




    No. Analog Computer
    Digital Computer
    1. Analog computers represent numbers by a physical quantity i.e. they assign numbers by physically measuring some physical property such as voltage, temperature, etc. Digital computers represent data as numbers. Counting on fingers is the simplest form of digital computers.
    2. Analog computers process analog signals which are continuous in nature. Digital computers process digital signals which are in discrete form.
    3. These Computers are not accurate and have limited storage capacity. These computers are highly accurate upto several decimal places.
    4. These are very much suitable for scientific and engineering applications. These are very much suitable for business data applications.
    5. They are cheap and easy to program. They are costly and complex to program.
    6. Programming is easy and cheap. Programming is complex and costly.
    7. Storage capacity is limited. Can store huge volume of data.
    8. Single purpose. Multi purpose.

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    Q.No.3. Bit Vs. Byte


    No. BIT BYTE
    1. It is the smallest unit of storage measurement. It is a collection of 8 bits.
    2. A bit can represent either ‘0’ or ‘1’. It can represent an alphabet, number or some special symbol.
    3. It is represented in the form of ON or OFF in the memory. It is used to represent several combinations of bits that indicate a character.
    4. It is used to represent small amount of memory. It is used to represent large amount of memory.

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    Q.No.4. Data Processing Vs. Data Processing System.


    No. Data Processing Data Processing System
    1. Data Processing is the restructuring, manipulating or recording of data by people or machines to increase their usefulness and value for some particular purpose. Data Processing System is a system that accepts data as input, processes it into information and gives output.
    2. It refers to some operations, which are required to process data and to produce information. For example, classifying, sorting, summarizing etc. It refers to some system which performs those functions.
    3. Processing involves some steps but does not include any components The components in manual data processing system would be men. They will use simple tools such as paper, pencils and filing cabinets. Mechanical data processing systems utilise such mechanical devices as typewriters, calculating machines and book keeping machines. Automatic data processing implies the use of machines for data processing. It could be performed either by unit record method or electro mechanically by computer.
    4. The main objective of data processing is to increase the usefulness the data. The system is designed to achieve the objectives of data processing.

  5. #5
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    Q.No.5. Data Processing System (DPS) Vs. Management Information System.


    No. Data Processing System (DPS) Management Information System (MIS)
    1. It is a system that collects as well as processes data and distributes information in the organization. MIS is a network of computer based data processing procedures developed in an Organization with manual or other procedures for the purpose of providing timely and effective information to support decision making and other necessary management functions.
    2. Data processing can be performed manually with the aid of such simple tools like paper, pencil and filing cabinets or Electro-mechanically with the aid of unit record machines or electronically with the aid of a computer. MIS uses the information generated by DPS and external information as resource for effective and better achievement of organizational objectives.
    3. DPS is hardware oriented. MIS are organizational and Application oriented.
    4. The source of data is internal. The source of data is both internal and external.
    5. DPS acts as a subsystem to the MIS. MIS uses the information from DPS with additional activities performed by people for collecting information.

  6. #6
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    Q.No.6. Different Generations of Computers.


    Particulars First Second Third Fourth Fifth
    Year 1949-55 1956-65 1966-75 1976-95 1996 onwards
    Size Room Size Cupboard Size Desk Size Minicomputer Typewriter Sized Computers & Laptops Credit Card Sized Computers & Palmtops
    Density One Component per Circuit 100 Components per Circuit 1000 Components per Circuit Hundreds of Thousands of Components per Circuit Millions of Components per Circuit
    Technology Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated
    Semiconductor
    Circuits
    Large Scale Integrated Semiconductor Circuits Very Large Scale Integrated Semiconductor
    Circuits
    Main Memory Magnetic Drum Magnetic Core Magnetic Core LSI Semiconductor Circuits VLSI Superconductor circuits
    Secondary Storage Magnetic Drum Magnetic Tape Magnetic Tape, Magnetic Disk Magnetic Disk,
    Magnetic Tape
    Magnetic Disk,
    Floppy Disk,
    Magnetic, Bubble, Optical.
    Optical Disks & Magnetic Disks
    Memory 10K - 20K
    Characters
    4K - 64K
    Characters
    32K – 4000K
    Characters
    51K – 32000K
    Characters
    Billions of Characters
    Operating Speed Milli Seconds
    10-3
    Micro Seconds
    10-6
    Nano Seconds
    10-9
    Pico Seconds
    10-12
    Still less than Pico seconds.
    10-15
    External Speed Few thousand
    Instructions
    Upto 10 Lakh
    Instructions
    Upto 1 Crore
    Instructions
    100 mps Billion
    Instructions /sec.
    Input/output devices Punched card, paper tape Paper tape, Magnetic tape, VDU VDU, MICR,
    OCR
    VDU, MICR,
    OCR, Voice Recognition
    Speech Input, Tactile Input, Graphics, Voice Responses
    Cost Very High Lower than
    First Generation
    Lower than
    Second
    Generation
    Lower than
    Third
    Generation
    Very Low
    Other features Generate heat, Relatively slow & rigid in operations. Reliable & Accurate, fast Faster, reliable, time sharing & Multi Processing Made possible Sophistication
    & Complex usage, Improved storage
    Sophistication
    & Complex usage, improved storage
    Programming
    Language
    Machine &
    Assembly Level Language
    High Level
    Language
    FORTRAN,
    COBOL.
    High level
    Languages:
    FORTRAN IV,
    COBOL 68, PL/1,

    Fourth Generation
    Language:
    FORTRAN 77,
    PASCAL, C,
    C++, JAVA.
    Fifth
    Generation
    Languages
    Data
    Processing
    Serial Spooling Multi-
    Programming
    Multi-
    Processing
    Multi-
    Processing

  7. #7
    sudhanshusaxena
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    Q.No.7. Master File Vs. Transaction File.


    No. Master File Transaction File
    1. Master file contains relatively permanently records for identification and summarizing statistical information. These are created from source documents used for recording events or transactions.
    2. It contains current or nearly current data, which is updated regularly. These files generally contain information used for updating master files.
    3. It rarely contains detailed transaction data. It contains detailed data.
    4. The product file, customer file and employee file are examples of master files. Examples of transactional files are purchase orders, job cards, invoices etc.
    5. These are usually maintained on direct access storage devices. These can be maintained on sequential as well as direct access storage devices.

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    Q.No.8. Workstation Vs. Microcomputer.


    No. Workstation Microcomputer
    1. Workstations are powerful desktop computers designed to meet the needs of engineers, architects and other professionals who need good graphic displays. It is a full-fledged computer system which uses a microprocessor as its CPU.
    2. It looks like a personal computer and is used by a single user. Its CPU uses Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC), which results in faster processing of instructions It uses a microprocessor as its CPU. It is also a single user computer.

    3. Workstations generally run on Unix Operating System or a variation of it. Microcomputers run on Dos, Unix, OS/2, MS Windows NT, etc. Microcomputers enable the users to switch between tasks known as Multitasking, which is a great time saver.
    4. Workstations are commonly used for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and are used as servers for Local Area network (LAN) It is multi purposeful. If the required software is available, it can be used for any application.
    5. Relatively fast in processing. Relatively slow in processing.

  9. #9
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    Q.No.9. Special purpose computers Vs. General Purpose computers.


    No. Special purpose computer General purpose computer
    1. A special purpose computer is designed to perform a special task. General purpose computers can be used for business, scientific and other applications.
    2. The instructions are in-built in the computer circuitry by the manufacturers. It can be programmed by the user for different purposes.
    3. These are also called dedicated computers. These are also called versatile machines.
    4. More efficient machines. Less efficient than special purpose computers.
    5. Programs in the machine cannot be changed or upgraded. As and when necessary, programs can be amended or dropped.
    6. Costly. Comparatively cheap.

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    Q.No.10. Third Generation Computers Vs. Fourth Generation Computers.


    No. Third Generation Computers Fourth Generation Computers
    1. They employed integrated circuits, in which all the elements are integrated on a tiny silicon wafer. They appeared in 1970’s. They still utilised still newer electronic technology and made the computer still smaller and faster then third generation computers.
    2. Mainframes, Mini Computers are one of the developments in this generation. Micro computers and super computers were introduced in this generation.
    3. They consume more power. They consume less power.
    4. These are bigger in size. These are smaller, compact in size.
    5. These are costlier. These are low cost machines.
    6. Third generation computers are used by large organisations. Fourth generation computers are used by small organisations or individuals.
    7. Processor’s speed started to be measured in nano seconds. Processor’s speed started to be measured in pica seconds.
    8. Third generation computers offer many salient features such as better operating systems, multi programming and support of secondary storage tapes and disks. User oriented software, concept of virtual storage which expands the main storage capacity etc. are the significant features of this generation computers.
    9. Support high level languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL. Object oriented languages such as C++, Visual Basic, etc. were introduced.

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